Are There Stable Mean Values, and Relationships between Them, in Statistical Parapsychology?

How to Cite

Helfrich, W. (2011). Are There Stable Mean Values, and Relationships between Them, in Statistical Parapsychology?. Journal of Scientific Exploration, 25(1). Retrieved from


Abstract-Mean values of the z-scores of statistical psi effects in psychokinesis (PK) and extrasensory perception (ESP) are compiled. Under the influence of psi, the z-score distribution of experiments with binary random number generators (RNGs) at large numbers N of bits is known to be shifted and widened, but to remain indifferent to N. The mean z-score of binary one-trial experiments with dream psi is noted to be not much smaller than the mean z-score of these (presumably) mostly isolated many-trial experiments with RNGs. This could suggest that with two equivalent choices PK and ESP are equally effective, or very nearly so, and the mean z-scores are almost equal at all N down to N = 1. The widening is found to be attributable to a Gaussian distribution of the magnitude of the PK effect that causes the shift, provided the z-score distribution remains Gaussian. Formulas are proposed to compute from the values of shift and widening as observed with RNGs those of psi effects with more than two equivalent choices, such as falling dice. They are only partially confirmed by the (still rather scanty) datasets of such systems. Finally, psi-induced switching and mind-neuron interaction are revisited.

Keywords: statistical parapsychology--mean values--relationships between mean values--psi effects--psychokinesis (PK)--extrasensory perception (ESP)--random number generators (RNGs)


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